DIETRY GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING A HEALTHY DIET | Balanced diet | Fats | Obesity
A balanced diet is a diet that includes all the essential nutrients in appropriate amounts, It includes all six classes of nutrients and calories in amounts that preserve and promote good health. Daily review of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) would provide enough information to plan balanced diets.
These are general goals for optimal nutrient intake. The Dietary Guidelines provide science-based advice to promote health and to reduce the risk for chronic diseases through diet and physical activity.
The guidelines are targeted to the general public over 2 years of age. Below are the titles of the topics for each section; The Dietary Guidelines themselves form an integrated set of key recommendations in each of the topic areas and will be discussed under the respective topics.
- Adequate nutrients within calorie needs
- Weight management
- Physical activity
- Food groups to encourage
- Sodium and potassium
- Alcoholic beverages
- T Food safety
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
- Recommended Dietary Allowances,
- Adequate Intake,
- Estimated Average Requirements,
- and the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for individuals into one value representative of the average daily nutrient intake of individuals over time.
Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs:
A basic premise of the Dietary Guidelines is that recommended diets will provide all the nutrients needed for growth and health and that the nutrients consumed should come primarily from foods.
Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol.
Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern such as the USDA Food Guide or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan.
Women of childbearing age who may become pregnant should eat foods high in heme-iron and consume iron-rich plant foods or ironfortified foods with an enhancer of iron absorption, such as vitamin C–rich foods. People over age 50. Consume vitamin B12 in its crystalline form (e.g., fortified foods or supplements).
Women of childbearing age who may become pregnant and those in the first trimester of pregnancy should consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of folate from a varied diet.
Older adults, people with dark skin, and people exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band-radiation (i.e., sunlight) should consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D–fortified foods and supplements.
The prevalence of overweight in the general population, and especially among children and adolescents, has increased substantially; it is estimated that as many as 16% of children and adolescents are overweight.
- To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended. To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity.
- Pregnant women should ensure appropriate weight gain as specified by a health care provider.
- Breastfeeding women. Moderate weight reduction is safe and does not compromise weight gain of the nursing infant.
- Overweight children should reduce the rate of body weight gain while allowing growth and development. Consult a health care provider before placing a child on a weight reduction diet.
- Those who need to lose weight, aim for a slow, steady weight loss by decreasing calorie intake while maintaining an adequate nutrient intake and increasing physical activity.
- Overweight adults and overweight children with chronic disease and/or on medication. Consult a health care provider about weight loss strategies.
Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy
expenditure. Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of certain chronic diseases, including high blood pressure, stroke, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, and osteoporosis. Therefore, it is
recommended that adults engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week.Regular physical activity and physical fitness make important contributions to one’s health, sense of well-being, and maintenance of a healthy body weight.
Health Benefits of Regular Physical Activity:
- Helps manage weight.
- Lowers risk factors for cardiovascular disease, colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes.
- Helps control blood pressure.
- Increases physical fitness
- Helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints
- Builds endurance and muscular strength
- Promotes psychological well-being and self-esteem.
- Children and adolescents should engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week.
- Breastfeeding women should be aware that neither acute nor regular exercise adversely affects the mother’s ability to successfully breastfeed.
- Pregnant women. In the absence of medical or obstetric complications, incorporate 30 minutes or more of moderateintensity physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week. Avoid activities with a high risk of falling or abdominal trauma.
- Older adults. Participate in regular physical activity to reduce functional declines associated with aging and to achieve the other benefits of physical activity identified for all adults.
Food Groups to Encourage:
Increased intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk products will have important health benefits. Those who eat more generous amounts of fruits and vegetables as part of a healthful diet may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, including stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers.
- Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other
vegetables) several times a week.
- Consume three or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains.
- Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.
- Children and adolescents. Consume whole-grain products often; at least half the grains should be whole grains. Children 2 to 8 years should consume 2 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.
Fats and oils are part of a healthful diet, but the type of fat makes a difference to heart health, and the total amount of fat consumed is also important. High intake of saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol increases the risk of coronary heart disease due to high blood lipid levels. Fats supply energy and essential fatty acids and serve as a carrier for the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K and carotenoids.
- When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low fat, or fat-free.
- Consume less than 10% of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol and keep trans-fatty acid consumption as low as possible.
- Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated and trans-fatty acids, and choose products low in such fats and oils.
- Children and adolescents. Keep total fat intake between 30 and 35% of calories for children 2 to 3 years of age and between 25 and 35% of calories for children and adolescents 4 to 18 years of age, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.
Carbohydrates are part of a healthful diet. Foods in the basic food groups that provide carbohydrates—fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk—are important sources of many nutrients. Dietary fiber is composed of nondigestible carbohydrates. Sugars and starches supply energy to the body in the form of glucose. Sugars can be naturally present in foods or added to the food.
Names for Added Sugars That Appear on Food Labels:
Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often. Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners, such as the amounts suggested by the USDA.
MyPyramid and the DASH Eating Plan. Reduce the incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming foods and beverages containing sugar and starch less frequently.
Older Adults. Dietary fiber is important for laxation (the elimination of fecal waste through the anus). Since constipation may affect up to 20% of people over 65 years of age, older adults should choose to consume foods rich in dietary fiber.
Alcoholic beverages supply calories but few essential nutrients. Alcoholic beverages are harmful when consumed in excess.
Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so sensibly and in moderation—defined as the consumption of up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.
Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by some individuals, including those who cannot restrict their alcohol intake, women of childbearing age who may become pregnant, pregnant and lactating
women, children and adolescents, individuals taking medications that can interact with alcohol, and those with specific medical conditions.
Alcoholic beverages should be avoided by individuals engaging in activities that require attention, skill, or coordination, such as driving or operating machinery.
Avoiding foods that are contaminated with harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins, and chemical and physical contaminants is vital for healthful eating.
- Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits and vegetables.
- Separate raw cooked and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing, or storing foods.
- Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly, and defrost foods properly.
- Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made from unpasteurized milk, raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, unpasteurized juices, and raw sprouts.
- Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
- Pregnant women, older adults, and those who are immunocompromised. Only eat certain deli meats and frankfurters that have been reheated to steaming hot.
- Infants and young children, pregnant women, older adults, and those who are immunocompromised. Do not eat or drink raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made from unpasteurized milk, raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, and raw or undercooked
fish or shellfish.
Helthwell: To maintain good health keep sure you make a healthy approach regarding physical, mental and your own well-being.